Criminological Theories

Introduction

One important aspect of criminology is examining the reasons as to why people commit crime and well as finding out how well to handle and prevent crime. By definition given by essay writing service, criminology refers to the scientific study of form, extent, general management, the causative factors, the repercussions and the ways to prevent criminal behavior in individuals and also in the society. The paper explains the causes of increased property and violent crimes in Wonderland between the 1980s and 2000. The two theories applied in the explanation are social disorganization and rational choice theories. According to Andresen, Brantingham, and Kinney, social disorganization theory entails the influence offenders receive from the neighborhoods (9). Disorganized communities characterized by ethnic heterogeneity, poverty, and residential movement are the key factors that lead to the weakening of the social stability[ CITATION AAn10 \p 10 \l 1033 ]. On the other hand, rational choice theory is based on the belief that an individual is known to think and always weighs the benefits and costs of each action. The person then takes a keen look at the means and ends thus prompting the person to make reasonable choices in the course of their action[ CITATION AAn10 \p 22 \l 1033 ]. Thus according to the rational theory, people will engage in crime based on the balance between the potential risks such as getting caught and the punishment that goes hand in hand, against the benefits or reward they are bound to acquire.

Increase in Crimes in the Wonderland between the 1980s and 2000

There had been reported increase in the number of organized gangs aimed at terrorizing people. The central group of criminals was the Wonderland Gang that involved a group of drug dealers during the early 1980s. The gang had a home base in Wonderland Avenue in Los Angeles, California. The group was mainly known for its drug trafficking, especially cocaine and heroin. There was also involvement in acts of armed robbery and burglaries that provided an alternative source of revenue for the group. Research showed that more male, people with lower incomes and young individuals (i.e. below 25 years) and those non-white persons had more likelihood to report being the victims of crime[ CITATION FCu13 \p 449 \l 1033 ]. The increased cases of reported crimes in Wonderland between the years 1980 and 200 could be explained on the basis on criminals weighing the pros and cons of the crimes. As earlier noted, most members of the gang in Wonderland used armed robbery and burglary to earn their revenue. In this case, they fully understood the repercussions that would befall on them once caught by the law enforcers but on weighing the benefits, they still had to engage in crime. The criminals thus could make a choice to commit the crimes, and ignore the deterring factor of the punishment before them.

Additionally, most of the gang members purposively committed the crime so as to satisfy their needs of such things as status, money, sex as well as excitement. According to the rational choice theory, individuals are thus compelled to act and make decisions and choices so as to achieve their desire for fulfilling a particular need[ CITATION AAn10 \p 21 \l 1033 ]. The choice made has a correlation with actions directed towards maximizing the personal pleasure, hence if the benefits outweigh the perceived potential punishment, the person is compelled to commit the crime. As with the case of Nash robbery that took place on June 29, 1981, the Wonderland gang members such as Ron Launius, David Lind, and Billy Deverell had the aim of stealing cash and drugs so as to earn revenue. The crime was so intense that resulted in the murder of some of the members.

According to Andresen, Brantingham, and Kinney, rational choice theory is used to explain the cost-benefit approach to bad decision making (25). The essence of the theory is to show why a crime occurred, in connection with particular people and at a given time and place. The theory thus can be used to explain that during 1980 and 2000, most crimes committed in Wonderland were based on the potential benefits the criminals were up to and thus made the criminals make choices and decisions regarding engaging in property crimes for the purpose of personal pleasure.

In the Wonderland Avenue, it was as well reported that violent crimes were committed in July 1981. The crimes were reported to occur in locations with high drug trafficking activities as well as other anti-social behaviors. According to social disintegration theory of criminology, much focus is basically on the effects of location and the particular characteristics of the environment about the crime. Specifically, the approach embarks on the study of the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and crime with much emphasis on whether the relationships are stable over time and if any relationship the criminal could have a direct link to the places the person lives[ CITATION AAn10 \p 10 \l 1033 ].

It is worth noting that in Wonderland, just like any other urban area, most of its inhabitants could be differentiated by low socio-economic status. As one moves away from any city and its central business or industrial district, the socio-economic status of the residents and their area tends to increase[ CITATION AAn10 \l 1033 ]. Between the period of 1980 and 2000, the industrial districts of the Wonderland were presumably dirty and polluted thus unsuitable for urban inhabitation. Since people who had a better and higher socio-economic status moved away from the city to more affluent residential areas. Therefore, space in the society became limited, thus increased competition over space hence provides a better dynamic to understand crime. There was ethnic heterogeneity created by the transition area between the polluted industrial areas and the affluent residential locations that made it hard to maintain social cohesion[ CITATION AAn10 \p 11 \l 1033 ]. Due to lack of social cohesion, neighborhoods lacked the ability to stand together and identify shared interests thus carry out an effective crime prevention plan that could have benefited the entire community.

Lastly, social disintegration theory tends to focus on deprivation regarding social cohesion and economics of people, family disruptions and ethnic heterogeneity[ CITATION AAn10 \p 12 \l 1033 ]. Once any of these factors increased, there was a marked increase in cases of crimes. The theory explains that neighborhoods that cannot sustain social cohesion provide a suitable environment for crime to flourish because such places have limited legal representation thus offer a high degree of anonymity hence criminals cannot be identified and apprehended[ CITATION AAn10 \p 12 \l 1033 ]. The other reason as to why weak social cohesion led to increased levels of violent crimes is that residents remained inactive and failed to notify the police whenever a crime was committed in the immediate neighborhood. The citizens could not identify each other, hence made it even harder to be aware of outsiders who often conducted committed the crimes.

Conclusion

The paper has assessed the two theories of criminology and how they can be related to the explanation of the increase in property and violent crimes in Wonderland between the 1980s and 2000. Rational choice is the first theory identified and it explains that individuals make decisions to commit crimes after considering the costs and benefits of the punishment and the revenue to earn after a successful crime. The other theory, social disintegration theory, concluded that crimes were increased due to the lack of social cohesion in between the low and high socio-economic status residents thus made it hard for the crimes committed to be reported.

Varying religions. Religion in New The united kingdom around the 17th Century

Varying religions. Religion in New The united kingdom around the 17th Century Muslims

It, thus, means that the individual is more important than the state, at least according to the social contract theorists.

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Totally different religions. Faith in New England on the 17th Century

The state is natural just the same way the family, village, and community are natural. But the main reason the state continues to exist is to provide the good life for its members. It is only within the state that peoples’ political abilities and social virtues can be nurtured. In other words, the state makes the individual self-sufficient. The individual is therefore a part of the whole (state) hence dependent on the state (Velasquez 550).

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Many kinds of religions. Religion in New The united kingdom through the 17th Century

Many kinds of religions. Religion in New The united kingdom through the 17th Century Many kinds of religionsThe apparent conflict between the individual and the state becomes even clearer when examined in the lens of rights. There tends to be tension whenever a decision needs to be made regarding whether the rights of the individual are more important than the rights of the larger community. On the one hand, it is true that every individual is part of the larger community since no human being can exist in isolation. Everyone needs family, neighbors and other community members. On the other hand, an individual cannot exercise full potential if society suppresses the individuality aspect (King 14-15).

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Several religions. Religion in New The united kingdom during the 17th Century

Several religions. Religion in New The united kingdom during the 17th Century Several religionsIn conclusion, it is evident that the Catholic Church Catechism indicates that the contemporary arguments about homosexuality tend to be substandard, and they put emphasis on the fact that the homosexual behavior is against the heavenly acceptable laws. The Catholic Church states that homosexual acts are a significant withdrawal of the tradition that pronounces the act fundamentally lawless. Homosexuality is the divergent of the ordinary laws since it does not entail of descent sexual aspects, making it to be rejected by the society. However, the church is lenient with the homosexuals since they state that these individuals are supposed to be respected by the community despite their behavior.

Industry explore refers to the primary cognitive issue of our society or various all around the full modern culture or people discover how and concentration of see. Whole world scene is made up of elements that include healthy school of thought, the essential,values and themes, and ethical, existential, emotions and normative postulates. Read More

Differing religions. Religious beliefs in New Britain for the 17th Century

Differing religions. Religious beliefs in New Britain for the 17th Century Christians in the modern worldThe social contract theorists argue that the state is an artificial creation that comes into existence when men come together purposely to form one. According to this school of thought, unless people aim to come together and think it up, there can be no state (Velasquez 551). Put differently, the state does not grow and develop naturally in the way suggested by the communitarian proponents.

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A variety of religions. Religious beliefs in New England in the 17th Century

A variety of religions. Religious beliefs in New England in the 17th Century Sexual cravingThis means that a person can acquire homosexual desires without preferably choosing to indulge in the behavior. Sexual craving is termed as the utmost level of a cognitive habituation in human beings (Wagner, 101). It is evident that it would be weird if homosexual desires were not subject to the aspects of a cognitive habituation. The homosexual activists usually justify homosexuality by indicating that an estimate of ten percent of the world’s population is homosexual, and it is important to accept the conventional behavior (Yip, 50).

Country watch signifies the key intellectual position of our society or unique all around the entire environment or consumers recognize how and concentrate of explore. Culture see consists of components in particular drug free philosophy, the fundamental,values and themes, and ethical, emotions, normative and existential postulates. World perspective may be referred to as a framework of beliefs and ideas that version a overview where folks, people or culture designer watches, and interprets the whole world and how anyone categories communicates from the industry. Globe perspective evaluation will be demonstrated in faith whereby varied denominations include varying beliefs and cultures. Christians, Muslims and Atheists portion differing ideologies so far as religion is concerned. Read More

Completely different religions. Religion in New The united kingdom during the 17th Century

Completely different religions. Religion in New The united kingdom during the 17th Century holyinfinite and holySome scholars who agree with position that the state is more important have argued along relative times of existence. For instance, some have argued that the state, nation, or civilization may last for a thousand years, hence has a longer life span than the individual who lives for about 70 years on average (Govier 44). Therefore, the state becomes more important than the individual since the individual will come and go while the state lives on.

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A variety of religions. Faith in New Britain while in the 17th Century

A variety of religions. Faith in New Britain while in the 17th Century mental pragmatic and coherent performance

The state and the individual present a philosophical debate as to which among these two is more important than the other. On the one hand, the communitarian school of thought maintains that the state is by nature prior to the individual because it is a natural outgrowth of human nature (Velasquez 550). If this is true, then the state is by no means more important than an individual. On the other hand, the social contract theorists argue that the state is an artificial construct that comes into being when people come together and decide to create one (Velasquez 551). If this is true, an individual is consequently more important than the state. Other scholars argue that the state is important for it exists longer compared to an individual. After a careful consideration of the arguments, I conclude that the state is more important than an individual. Read More

A variety of religions. Faith in New England on the 17th Century

A variety of religions. Faith in New England on the 17th Century Christian theism societyIn the same line of reasoning, those who believe in Christianity maintain that the individual is everlasting and more important than the state or a mere civilization (Govier 45).

Culture scene means the standard cognitive situation of world or specific surrounding the the complete culture or men and women recognize how while focusing of watch. Business observe consists of substances particularly purely natural beliefs, the fundamental,themes and values, and emotions, existential, normative and ethical postulates. Community display are typically termed as a structure of ideas and beliefs that develop a explanation whereby persons, sectors or way of life watches, and interprets the world and in what ways these teams interacts because of the global. Universe check out research is in many cases displayed in religion by which many different denominations posses distinct cultures and beliefs. Muslims, Atheists and Christians readily share several ideologies so far as religion is involved.The visible difference in the standpoint is just what is known to provide a global see. Read More